International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber <p><span class="sentence corrected"><strong>Name</strong>:&nbsp; International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research<br><strong>E-ISSN</strong>:&nbsp; <a href="https://issn.lipi.go.id/terbit/detail/1609754611" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2774-5368</a><br><strong>DOI</strong>:&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.11594/ijmaber">10.11594/ijmaber</a><br><strong>Period</strong>:&nbsp; Monthly (Since 2021)<br><strong>Indexing and Abstracting</strong>:&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=cmN7abQAAAAJ&amp;hl=id&amp;authuser=3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Schola</a>r,&nbsp; <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=ijmaber&amp;from_ui=yes" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Crossref</a>,&nbsp; <a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?search_mode=content&amp;search_text=ijmaber&amp;search_type=kws&amp;search_field=full_search" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions</a>,&nbsp; 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<a href="https://futuresciencepress.com/index.php/futuresciencepress" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Future Science</a>, Malang, Indonesia<br><strong>Founded:&nbsp; </strong>2020</span></p> <p><span class="sentence corrected"><strong>Article Processing Charges&nbsp; 30 USD/ Papers.&nbsp;</strong></span></p> <p><span class="sentence corrected">International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research is a peer-reviewed on a monthly basis that publishes full-length papers and fast review process.</span>&nbsp;<span class="sentence corrected">It is to enhance the dissemination of knowledge across the multidisciplinary community.</span>&nbsp;<span class="sentence corrected">We are particularly interested in papers relevant to all disciplines.</span>&nbsp;<span class="sentence corrected">The editorial board has kept receiving articles that address all areas. <strong>Topics: </strong><strong>Arts, </strong><strong>Business, Economics, and Management, </strong><strong>Current Events and Controversial Issues, </strong><strong>Education and Social Work, </strong><strong>Health Sciences, </strong><strong>Humanities, </strong><strong>Natural and Physical Sciences, </strong><strong>Social Sciences and Others Relevant Multidisplinary.&nbsp; </strong></span></p> Future Science en-US International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research 2774-5368 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Creative Commons Attribution</em>&nbsp;</a>License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>See the Effect of Open Access</em></a>).</p> Mathematics Teachers’ Perception on Modular Distance Learning: A Phenomenological Study https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/509 <p>This study aimed to capture the lived experiences of Mathematics teachers on modular distance learning. It explored mathematics teachers' perception of modular distance learning, describe the challenges, and struggles in the new normal, unveil the coping mechanisms of mathematics teachers on the demand of modular distance learning, and verify the effects of modular distance learning on students' mathematics performance. This phenomenological study used Colaizzi’s method of data analysis to interpret and analyze the data. Nine (9) teacher-participants were recruited using purposive sampling technique. The study used the interview method in gathering data. In this study, teacher-participants perceived that modular distance learning is one of the best ways to continue students' learning. However, students' mathematics performance using modular distance learning is far below the expected standard. Identified contributing factors were students' attitudes, teachers' workloads, digital infrastructure and gadgets, slow internet connections, lack of parents' support, and students' motivation. The findings of this study can be used as a basis or springboard for revision of implementing guidelines of modular distance learning enactment policies that would provide intervention to the existing identified problem.</p> Renato V. Friolo Romel C. Mutya Copyright (c) 2022 Renato Friolo, Romel Mutya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1607 1615 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.01 The Efficacy of Technical Assistance in Crafting and Appraising the En-hanced School Improvement Plan (E-SIP) in East Butuan District III https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/613 <p>Today's impact of technical assistance in improving organizational performance, its people, practices and mechanisms, and the organization itself is far more important than before. The study sought to determine the efficacy of technical assistance in crafting and appraising the E-SIP in the district. The study's participants were the school heads in the district holding different positions. Specifically, the participants were profiled in terms of years of experience, the number of leadership training attended, position, and years in school. The appraisal rating of the E-SIP was utilized, and it was found that there was a significant improvement in the ratings after the TA was provided. Further, paired t-test was used to test the significant difference between the appraisal rating before and after the TA was provided and revealed a significant difference characterized by the p-value of 0.000. It was found that when given appropriately and proactively, technical assistance has a long-term impact on school heads, TA providers, policymakers, and program implementers in improving organizational performance.&nbsp;</p> Jonas H. Jomonong Copyright (c) 2022 Jonas H. Jomonong https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1616 1621 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.02 Public School Heads’ Leadership Style and Best Practices in the Depart-ment of Education in Bulacan, Philippines https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/607 <p>This study aims to determine the leadership style and the best practices of the school heads in the department of education in Bulacan. In the Philippines, there shall be a school head for all public elementary and secondary schools or as cluster thereof, pursuant to Section 6.1, Rule VI of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Republic Acts No. 9155 (Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001). A school head is a person responsible for the administrative and instructional supervision of the school or cluster if schools. As such, a school head is expected to possess the following leadership: educational leadership, people leadership and strategic leadership. The study will use the Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (Creswell, 2014), extensive documentary analysis was employed. Every school heads function as leaders resulted to improved learners’ profound academic performance, brought by a strong leadership formulated an achievable vision, mission in accomplishing the goal. Best practices were clearly demonstrated as the indicators of better and improving school learning environment.</p> Madonna R. Estacio Dennis L. Estacio Copyright (c) 2022 Dennis Estacio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1622 1629 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.03 Human Resource Management Practices and Job Satisfaction: Basis for Development of a Teacher Retention Framework https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/612 <p>The objective of this research paper is to examine the association between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and teachers' Job Satisfaction (JS) of private academic institutions in Olongapo City, Philippines. The investigators used a descriptive-correlation research design among 170 conveniently chosen respondents. The study used an adopted and modified research instrument wherein the gathered data underwent descriptive and inferential analysis. The study revealed that private academic institutions practice recruitment and selection processes, evaluate employee performance, provide training and development, appropriate compensation, career planning opportunities, and employee safety, health, and welfare. Furthermore, respondents were satisfied with their supervisors, coworkers, working conditions, compensation and responsibilities; job itself, advancement, security, and recognition. Inferential analysis revealed that the association between HRM practices and job satisfaction is highly significant. The investigators used human resources management practices and job satisfaction to develop a teacher retention framework based on these results.</p> Hans Christian U. Mondejar John Mark R. Asio Copyright (c) 2022 John Mark R. Asio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1630 1641 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.04 Cultivating a Culture of Innovation: The Experience of Al Salam Private School in Dubai, United Arab Emirates https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/517 <p>Innovation, being one of the initiatives of the UAE, has been mandated to be promoted and cultivated in all government sectors including education. In response to the mandate, schools incorporated innovation into their system and operation. Al Salam Private School, in its existence for more than 30 years, has made a lot of innovative steps to address the call and demands of the time. The culture of innovation in Al Salam Private School may already be existing, but in order to know how to move forward, an assessment was made to determine the perception of the staff. The Six Building Blocks of an Innovative Culture instrument of Rao and Weintraub (2013) was modified to suit and fit the need of the survey. The survey revealed that overall, the culture of innovation in Al Salam Private School is to a great extent. Specifically, the culture of innovation in terms of values, behaviors, climate, and processes are to a great extent while resources and success are to a moderate extent. The focus areas derived from the three least rated elements in the survey are: having good incentive systems which recognize and reward innovation, rewarding people for participating in potentially risky opportunities, irrespective of the outcome, and having inspiring physical spaces for staff to collaborate, be creative and engage in innovative practice. Three emerging themes were extracted from the interview with the key informants, and these are incentives and recognition, risk-taking activities, and collaborative and inspiring space. These themes were consistent with the focus areas derived from the survey. From the integration of the quantitative and qualitative analysis, an eidetic model of the culture of innovation was developed. The three pillars of the model served as the key priority areas in the crafting of the Innovation Plan.</p> Mark Rey Santos Copyright (c) 2022 Mark Rey Santos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1642 1653 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.05 The The Liquidity Issues and the Profitability Index of Small-Scale Business Entities in Sorsogon Province, Philippines https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/450 <p>This research was conducted to determine the liquidity issues and profitability index of small-scale businesses operating in the Second District of Sorsogon Province, Philippines as well as to establish the relationship of these two variables. This study used mixed design.&nbsp; A total of 223 small-scale business owners engaged in trading in the Second District of Sorsogon Province, Philippines were the primary respondents of this research. Vertical analyses and stepwise linear regression analyses were utilized.</p> <p>This study concludes that small-scale business entities in the Province of Sorsogon are highly liquid and profitable depicting their ability to pay short-term maturing obligation. Limited and unavailability of capitalization, Absence of Credit Policy, High Finance cost for debt financing, Inventory obsolescence, Shortage of&nbsp;resources&nbsp;and Lack of markets of measure and scope are the identified liquidity issues by small-scale business owners. To address the issues, the Use equity financing than debt financing, Strengthen the company’s policy of extending loan, Minimize the purchase of inventory or stocks, financial suffering by&nbsp;staying well-informed of your finances and Hiring Bookkeepers are highly recommended by the respondents.</p> Michael B. Bongalonta Michelle M. Bongalonta Copyright (c) 2022 Michelle Bongalonta, Michael Bongalonta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1654 1663 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.06 ADVERTISEMENTS AND SEXISM IN THE PHILIPPINES https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/492 <p>Advertisements have been an effective tool used to promote a product or service. It can also be considered as a way to shape the mind and the culture of society. Hence, this study determined the linguistic elements and analyzed different types of sexism through language in Philippine television advertisements. The study used qualitative approach to research and utilized a validated self-made research instrument which served as the primary tool of the study. The study identified the linguistic elements present in Philippine television advertisements in terms of its lexical and syntactical feature and analyzed the types of sexism through language in Philippine advertisements. The study revealed that the commonly used lexical feature of advertisements is simple vocabulary; meanwhile for syntactic feature, the most common is ambiguity and the use of imperative. It is also found that advertisements can be used as a sexism platform in the Philippines. Moreover, the way these elements are used or depicted along with the portrayal of men and women in the advertisements may influence the audience’s perception and understanding of what they have seen thus, the audio-video material as output of this study may serve as a tool to liberate the minds of the viewing public.</p> April Jane G. Sales Glarissa D. Leuterio Lurie Jane S. Lopez Claire Dianne G. Matinao Lorna C. Naces Ariel L. Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 APRIL JANE SALES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1664 1672 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.07 Implementation of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Model Learning (Pogil) on Understanding of Science Concepts, Skills Science Process and Student's Critical Thinking Ability https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/534 <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Audi Video Tenik Class XI Student Learning model at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar who had not carried out scientific inquiry in an effort to grow the ability to think, work, and behave scientifically. This study is a quasi-experimental design study with a nonequivalent control group. Sampling technique with a simple random sample. Hypothesis testing using Manova analysis and t test. The results showed that (1) there was an effect of the POGIL learning model on understanding science concepts, (2) there was an effect of the POGIL learning model on science process skills, (3) there was an effect of the POGIL learning model on critical thinking skills, and (4) there was a significant effect. significant application of the POGIL learning model simultaneously to understanding science concepts, science process skills, and critical thinking skills.</p> Beslon Samosir Copyright (c) 2022 Beslon Samosir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1673 1682 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.08 Resiliency Among Various Businesses in the Philippines in the Context of Post-Disaster Recovery Framework https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/567 <p>This research highlights the aspects of resiliency among business establishments in the Visayas regions that were directly affected by super typhoon Yolanda in 2013. This study employs a descriptive method to characterize resiliency factors among various businesses. A survey questionnaire was utilized to gather relevant data from the 106 business proprietors and managers. Multivariate analysis via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the underlying factors. In the context of the post-disaster recovery of businesses in the Visayas regions, the exploratory analysis yielded five dimensions. Based on the finding, five causal factors are significant in developing a post-disaster resiliency and recovery framework among various business types. Any business is considered resilient against any form of disaster if it has complete control of its institutional affairs and plans ahead guided by its philosophy. Futuristic planning is also necessary as it imbibes in its operational philosophy the value of foresight. Besides, every business needs to strengthen its linkages outside its operations. Hence, a resilient business considers the value of information exchange and dissemination. Thus, a business is said to be sustainable if it maintains a sound and working framework to improve an adaptive capacity for any calamity or disaster.</p> Anesito L. Cutillas Rosalyn P. Alburo Hemres M. Alburo Pet Roey L. Pascual Copyright (c) 2022 Anesito Cutillas, Rosalyn Alburo, Hemres Alburo, Pet Roey Pascual https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1683 1692 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.09 Academic Self-Efficacy of College Freshmen in Relation to English Language Competency https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/538 <p>This study is conducted to determine if academic self-efficacy and English language competency are correlated. Survey instruments on academic self-efficacy and English language competencies were administered to 221 college freshmen. Academic self-efficacy and English language competencies composed of vocabulary, grammar, and comprehension were determined using the mean, while the Kruskal Wallis test was used for differences and the Chi-square Test for relationships. Significant differences were evident in the level of academic self-efficacy and the level of English language competencies when grouped according to program enrolled and academic self-efficacy is significantly related to the English language competency of college freshmen. Future research will be conducted.</p> Nicolas N. Galabasa Jobell Cris T. Vibal Sharon L. Apohen Copyright (c) 2022 Nicolas N. Galabasa, Jobell Cris T. Vibal, Sharon L. Apohen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1693 1702 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.10 Fibonacci Numbers as Hyperparameters for Image Dimension of a Convolu-tional Neural Network Image Prognosis Classification Model of COVID X-ray Images https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/560 <p>In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved amazing success in a variety of image categorization tasks. However, the architecture of CNNs has a significant impact on their performance. The designs of the most cutting-edge CNNs are frequently hand-crafted by experts in both CNNs and the topics under investigation. As a result, it's tough for users who don't have a lot of experience with CNNs to come up with the best CNN architecture for their individual image categorization challenges. This work investigates the application of the Fibonacci numbers to efficiently solve picture classification challenges by utilizing the hyperparameter of image dimension of COVID and non-COVID x-ray images. The suggested algorithm's greatest strength is the development of a CNN model that can be utilized for COVID viral prognosis using x-ray images to supplement existing COVID pandemic testing techniques. The proposed approach is tested using the metrics of training time, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score on commonly used benchmark image classification datasets. According to the experimental data, the CNN model with an image dimension of 55 x 55 surpasses the other CNN models in terms of training time, accuracy, recall, and F1-score. Several issues were raised about how to choose the best CNN models for prognostic picture categorization.</p> Edwin M. Torralba Copyright (c) 2022 Edwin Torralba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1703 1716 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.11 The Influence of School Heads’ Transformational Leadership on Schools’ Performance: The Case of City Schools Division of San Fernando, La Union https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/608 <p>The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of school heads’ transformational leadership and school performance among public elementary school in the City Schools Division of San Fernando, La Union. Descriptive-correlational design was used which consists of 27 elementary schools with twenty-seven (27) school heads and four hundred forty-three (443) teachers who were in active service for the School Year 2021-2022 were the respondents of the study. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Rank-biserial and Spearman’s rank, Pearson product-moment correlation were the tools used in the study and all analyses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using IBM SPSS. The professional characteristics of the school heads showed that majority of them are occupying a plantilla item of Principal 1 and 2 and are still taking their doctorate degree. Also, most of them served for 10 years and above as school heads and they are managing non-central and medium-sized schools. The practice of transformational leadership among the school heads is generally high and the ratings of the school heads across all the dimensions of transformational leadership are consistent. Majority of the school head in the Division of La Union have <em>Maturing</em> or level 2 SBM practice. The schools have introduced and sustained continuous improvement process that integrates wider community participation and improve significantly the students’ performance and learning outcomes. The test of hypothesis showed that there were no significant differences between school heads and teachers’ ratings of the former’s transformational leadership except for the domains “enabling others to act” and “encouraging the heart”. The school type had a significant relationship with the domain “enabling the heart”. Specifically, those who are managing non-central school had significantly lower scores in encouraging the heart compared to those who are managing the central schools. Other profile variables are not significantly related to transformational leadership. Finally, there was a significant positive correlation between the overall transformational leadership and the schools’ performance. The more school heads practice transformational leadership particularly “Inspiring a shared vision” and “Encouraging the heart”, the higher is the schools’ performance. In conclusion, the elementary schools in the Division of La Union City are compliant to DepEd Order No.&nbsp;83, s. 2012. However, much is desired to elevate its compliance to advanced stage. Significantly, the high practice of transformational leadership and this is translated in the school improvement and performance marked by the introduction and sustained process of stakeholders’ participation and significant students’ learning outcomes. Remarkably, higher practice of transformational leadership among school heads yields higher school performance particularly along Inspiring a shared vision and Encouraging the heart. Thus, transformational leadership is an effective leadership approach in managing DepEd schools as it ushers significant changes in the development of schools and its stakeholders.</p> Edgardo B. Dacpano Copyright (c) 2022 Edgardo B. Dacpano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1717 1736 10.11594/ijmaber03.09.12 Effect of Distance Learning Challenges during Covid19 Pandemic to Teach-ers’ Self – Care https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/619 <p>Positive feelings encourage higher participation in teaching. This study examined the respondents’ emotional self- care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researcher explored the effect of distance- learning challenges during COVID-19 pandemic to the emotional self-care of the teachers. Descriptive correlational research design was used in the study with a questionnaire as the main tool in gathering the needed data among one-hundred seventy one (171) respondents identified using complete enumeration among elementary school teachers in the Division of Quezon City, Philippines. The data gathered were treated and analyzed using mean, weighted mean, chi – square and Pearson <em>r</em>. The mean age of the respondents is 40.43, female dominated at 73 percent. Most of respondents were teaching in the primary level that teaches general content courses. About 20 percent of the respondents had been in the field for about 11 – 15 years. Civil status and challenges, civil status and grade level taught to emotional self – care, grade level taught to teaching performance, challenges to self – care, challenges to teaching performance, and self-care to teaching performance revealed a significant relationship. Findings of the study is deemed contributory to possible adjustments to faculty development plan to adapt to changing roles from physical to virtual set – up.</p> Eva L. Comia Copyright (c) 2022 Eva L. Comia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1737 1741 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.13 Performance of Grade 8 Students in Mathematics Intervention Program https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/530 <p>Mathematics interventions are being provided for students nationwide who perform below basic on various assessments.&nbsp; The assessment of students’ performance in Mathematics gave rise to the conduct of this study. In this research, Grade 8 students who did not meet the expected competencies will have the opportunity to receive extra Mathematics assistance. Hence, this study is proposed so as to support the sustainability of Mathematics intervention program. This study is an action research utilizing survey questionnaire in order to determine the performance of the students in the pre- and post-tests of students under the Mathematics intervention program. The subject and the respondents of this study are the identified students in the Grade 8 who have not met the required competencies in Mathematics subject. Result showed that post-test result (Tutorial: 18.151±5.548; Remedial: 18.944±5.395) is higher than the pre-test result (Tutorial: 11.019±4.144; Remedial: 11.519±3.565) under tutorial program and remediation program. Result of the study also revealed that there is a significant difference between the performance of the students in the pre and post-test under tutorial program (t=-11.632, p=0.000) as well as in the performance of the students under remediation program tutorial program (W=0.000, p=0.000). Indeed, the aforementioned program is effective to improve the performance of students in Mathematics. Mathematics intervention program is effective to improve grades and performance of students, thus teachers should design a more improved techniques of this program.</p> Jeanalyn G. Francisco Chard Aye R. Alova Iana Menzi C. Alova Sharon L. Apohen Copyright (c) 2022 Jeanalyn Francisco, Chard Aye Alova, Iana Menzi Alova, Sharon Apohen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1742 1748 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.14 Factors Influencing Treatment Default among Direct Observed Treatment Short-Course Enrolled in Pulmonary Tuberculosis https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/610 <p>The Direct Observed Treatment Short course is a therapeutic intervention implemented by the government to treat patients infected with tuberculosis. But treatment default is still a problem that results to an increasing mortality rate among enrolled clients.&nbsp; This study aims to determine the factors influencing treatment default among DOTS enrolled pulmonary tuberculosis in Jolo RHU. &nbsp;The objectives of the study were the following:&nbsp;&nbsp; knew the socio-demographic factors influencing treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patient in terms of educational attainment, occupation, and family income, the treatment regimen related factors influencing the treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patient in terms of duration of treatment, problem with tablets, social/economic factors, adverse effect, and availability of medicine, and the significant relationship when grouped according to profile. The respondents involved in various occupations and were earning between 1000 and below and up to 3001 to 5000. This study utilized Inferential- evaluative research design.&nbsp; The Inferential was through correlational approach and quantitative techniques in the analysis and interpretation of data gathered. The study used descriptive statistics such as: frequency, percentage, and weighted mean as a tools of analysis of the data collected.</p> <p>The findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents’ educational attainment were at elementary level with 20 respondents having 66.66%, secondary level with 9 respondents having 30%, and vocational graduate of 1 respondent with 3.3%. However, the respondents show in their occupation that majority were from vendors of 20 respondents having 66.66%, followed by laborers of 4 respondents having 13.335, tricycle drivers of 2 respondents having 6.66%, construction workers of 2 respondents having 6.66%, fisherman with 1 respondent having 3.33%, and street sweeper having 1 respondent with 3.33%. Lastly, majority of the respondents earning P1,000 and below were the highest defaulters. 25 respondents having a family income of P1,000 and below showing 83.33%, only 5 respondents earning P3,001 to 5,000 family income which shows 16.66%, and none of them were earning P1,000 – 3,000. Likewise, it was revealed that the respondents were <em>highly influenced</em> by the statement that the treatment duration is too long. Likewise, the statement that too many tablets at a time and that the tablet is big has a <em>high influenced</em> on their treatment default<em>.</em> For Social/Economic Factors, they were <em>moderately influenced</em> on poor access to a DOTS facility to geographical factors and cultural belief limits the choice of treatment. They cannot decide however that post-disaster scenario influences treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.&nbsp; Also, the respondents were <em>highly influenced</em> with the experienced of orange colored urine, pain at the injection site, and hearing impairment. But they are <em>moderately influenced</em> with the experienced of skin allergy, flu-like symptoms, impairment of visual acuity, and burning sensation in the feet. On the availability of medicine, they are <em>highly influenced</em> that medicine is always available at the center.&nbsp; An average of 4.67 confirms that they were highly influenced to the problem with tablets. The average of 3.88 confirms they were moderately influenced with the social/economic factors. An average of 4.15 confirms that they were moderately influenced with adverse effect of the treatment regimen. The overall average of 4.24 means denotes that the respon]dents were moderately influenced with all the treatment regimen related factors influencing treatment default among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients.</p> <p>Further, it was revealed in the result on the significant differences when the respondents were grouped in terms of profile resulted to L=.05, df=1 for numerator and df=16 for denominator, the <strong><em>F critical value is 4.49 therefore, the hypothesis is accepted</em></strong> and it was analyzed through ANOVA.&nbsp; Moreover, it was revealed that the result on the significant differences when respondents were grouped in terms of Educational Attainment, at α= .05, df=2 for numerator and df=27 for denominator, the <strong><em>F critical value is 6.49 therefore, the hypothesis is accepted</em></strong>. Result also revealed that on the significant differences when the respondents are grouped according to Occupation, at α=.05, df=5 for numerator and df=24 for denominator, the <strong><em>F critical value is 4.49 therefore, the hypothesis is accepted</em></strong>.&nbsp; In the same manner that the result on the significant differences when the respondents are grouped according to Income, at α= .05, df=5 for numerator and df=24 for denominator, the <strong><em>F critical value is 9.28 therefore, the hypothesis is accepted</em></strong>.</p> <p>Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that most of the pulmonary tuberculosis patient belong to the marginalized group of our society they only earn 1000 and below per month, in their early 30’s in age, and less educated. Since the treatment regimen related factors has no relationship with the treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patients, other factors not mentioned in the study could cause the treatment default. Profiles do not have relationship to the treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The participants in this study have given the assurance of the ethical consideration. They were informed that this study will address them with highest respect of confidentiality and anonymity. It is also <br>adhered that respondents were respected during the launching of the questionnaire.</p> <p>The following recommendations are forwarded based on the conclusions of the study that factors must be examined which may have triggered the treatment default among pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Future research on the topic must investigate the role of RHU’s in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patient and the barangay health workers. Also an awareness seminar among the residents in their area of responsibility on the effect of defaulting treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patient must conducted.</p> Khadija S. Kasim Magna Anissa E. Aming-Hayudini Copyright (c) 2022 MAGNA ANISSA E. AMING-HAYUDINI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1749 1764 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.15 Satisfactions of Customers by Using Online Food Application Services During Covid-19 Pandemic https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/611 <p>Food businesses benefit from an online food ordering and delivery framework. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence overall consumer satisfaction with online food delivery providers. The demographic information of the respondents was discussed in this study. Furthermore, this study also revealed a significant difference between respondents' perceptions of e-services and the variables listed in the study's objectives.</p> <p>The researchers used a quantitative approach to identify the factors that influence consumers' overall satisfaction with online food delivery services. To collect information from the respondents, the researchers used a convenience and snowball sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the respondent profile. The Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used to determine the difference in e-satisfaction between female and male respondents, while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the difference in e-satisfaction of respondents when grouped by age.</p> <p>The Spearman rho was used to see if there was a link between personal aspect, E-Service Quality, and Perceived Food Quality and e-satisfaction. The study found a significant relationship between personal aspect, E-Service Quality, and Perceived Food Quality and e-satisfaction.</p> <p>In terms of gender, most of the respondents are male, with 51.3%, and for the age of respondents, 29 to 40 years old. In terms of employment status, employed with a total of 162 and 61.60% has participated in the study. income salary, 50,000 and above are the highest, with a frequency of 64 and a percentage of 27.71%.</p> Honeylyn R. Dela Rosa Lenis Aislinn C. Separa Copyright (c) 2022 Honeylyn R. Dela Rosa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 3 9 1765 1776 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.16 Impact Assessment of Aqua Silviculture of Milagros and Placer, Masbate https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/539 <p>With the alarming poverty incidence among fisherfolks communities, the Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR) embarked a project dubbed as Fisheries, Coastal Resources and Livelihood (FishCORAL) funded by United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN-IFAD) to address the problem by providing livelihood project to the coastal areas of different regions in the country. To assess the impact of the said project in the Bicol region, Bicol University in collaboration with different State Colleges and Universities in the region conducted a project called impact assessment on different project of the FishCORAL livelihood projects. The aim of the study is to assess the key indicators of the project if the goals of the project was met with the implementation of the livelihood project. The study used convenience sampling in the field surveys and focus group discussions to draw conclusion wherein the respondents are the recipient of the aqua silviculture livelihood project. The study reveals that the beneficiaries is under big household category making them hard to financially sustain the basic needs of the family because there is large percentage of dependent individuals. It was also noted that they do not have their own lot where they built their houses and the source of drinking water is unprotected well.&nbsp; In addition, the livelihood project is not sustainable because of various problems such as no profit from the first production cycle, most of the beneficiaries backed out during the implementation and the association itself is not technically prepared to implement the project to sustainable ends. Conduct of more technical capability training along varied aspects of aqua silviculture shall be caried out. Also, trainings on financial literacy, business management and basic record keeping are very necessary. There is also a need to craft a clearcut guideline and operational protocol to guide the aqua silviculture venture.&nbsp; Maybe, a root cause analysis of the previous production cycle should be <br>carried-out to highlight lessons and undertake corrective measures. The association must be reorganized, reoriented and retooled.</p> Jacob Frederick P. Velza Roger Y. Ibañez Alvin M. Mahawan Copyright (c) 2022 ROGER IBAÑEZ, Jacob Frederick Velza, Sipronio Belardo, Ronnel Dioneda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1777 1790 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.17 Factors Affecting Teachers’ Turnover: Basis for a Proposed Retention Program https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/587 <p>The significant role of education in human development is universally recognized. More than anybody else in the education sector, teachers play a vital role in the development of an individual. However, it becomes a tremendous struggle for the school administrators on how they can retain their teachers, especially those whose services are much needed. This study determined the possible factors that cause the high teachers' turnover, which can be used as a basis for the retention program among faculty members. Thirty-seven (37) teachers from three different schools were given a survey questionnaire to determine the factors that affected their decision to leave the academic institution. The descriptive research design was utilized for this study. The study yielded the following findings which showed why teachers decided to leave the school where they work. The personal factors were considered to a moderate extent, with the change of environment most impactful. Likewise, the institutional factors also affected the teachers’ turnover to a moderate extent, mostly because the opportunities for training are limited. Finally, the psychological factors got the least impact on the teachers’ turnover, with demoralization and insecurities they felt from colleagues as the very impactful. Based on the result of the study, a retention program was deemed necessary and was proposed by the researcher.</p> Noland Santiago Teresita Santos Ana Kristina Santiago Centeno Copyright (c) 2022 Noland Santiago, Teresita Santos, Ana Kristina Santiago Centeno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1791 1797 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.18 Philippine English Modules During Covid-19 Pandemic: Its Gender Sensitiv-ity and Responsiveness https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/609 <p>The purpose of this research is to evaluate the manifestations of gender bias in DepEd Secondary English Modules. The distribution of characters and the occurrence of gender bias have been determined in self-learning modules (SLMs). In this research, both quantitative and qualitative methods of content analysis were used. These strategies were applied using the methodology given by Brugeilles and Cromer in their paper Analyzing Gender Representations in School Textbooks. The DepEd Region V English Self-Learning Modules for grades seven through ten were used in this research as part of the K-12 curriculum. It was discovered that there was a gender imbalance in secondary English SLMs along with pictures and text; females were underrepresented as men were represented twice in the modules; gender stereotyping was found to have the highest percentage of the four categories of the manifestations of gender bias, which is alarming to women who may feel that they have less value in society. The absence of women in occupations dominated by males demonstrates their inadequacy and dependence on men. The pedagogical implications of gender-responsive education must thus be emphasized, particularly in the new educational standard. It is advised that policies in Philippine schools be reexamined in order to determine their effectiveness<strong>.</strong></p> Elreen Aguilar-Delavin Copyright (c) 2022 Elreen Delavin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1798 1804 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.19 Elevating Argumentation Skills Through Discovery Learning https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/418 <p>The 2013 curriculum is oriented toward 21st-century competencies by deploying technology in learning. 21st Century skills hold predominant roles in education. Cognitive skills, critical thinking, creative thinking, metacognitive, perseverance, confidence, solving problem skills, social skills, collaboration, and communication fall under the 21st Century skills. Argumentation skills are important to educators, especially in critical thinking and being able to express opinions or arguments based on data and facts. Learners are required to make decisions on the basis of logical and reasonable information. In improving argumentation skills, a suitable learning model is required, namely Discovery Learning. Discovery learning occurs in problem-solving situations in which learners engage their existing experience and knowledge to discover meaningful new facts, relationships, and truths. As such, Discovery Learning can help learners to improve argumentation skills based on data and facts.&nbsp;</p> Kayan Swastika Mohamad Na'im Ilvatus Safiroh Copyright (c) 2022 Kayan Swastika, Mohamad Na'im, Ilvatus Safiroh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1805 1811 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.20 SPED Teachers’ Extent of Implementing Picture Exchange Communication System: It’s Effect on the Functional Communication Skills of Learners with Down Syndrome https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/620 <p>People with limited or no communication skills can use the Picture Exchange Communication System, or PECS, to communicate visually. Based on an evaluation of the functional communication skills of students with Down syndrome, this study investigated the profile of the respondents, the respondents' level of implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System for students with Down Syndrome, the level of effectiveness of using the Picture Exchange Communication System, and the connection between these variables. The descriptive correlational research method was used for the study. The study's respondents were special education teachers from various schools in NCR. The study's respondents were chosen through the use of purposeful sampling. Frequency count, percentage, mean, weighted mean, and the chi-square test were used to tabulate and evaluate the data collected. The respondents are aged 38 on average, with more females than males. The majority of the instructors has bachelor's degrees in early childhood special education. Additionally, it was discovered that these teachers had been working in the field for an average of 7 years. The picture exchange communication system for kids with down syndrome is being used by these teachers to a very high degree, according to the research on its deployment. Based on the evaluation of the functional communication abilities of students with down syndrome, the picture exchange communication system (PECS) is rated as fair or emerging in terms of its effectiveness. Significant relationship was also observed between age and the level of effectiveness, Gender and extent of implementation.</p> Marita Nimiah P. Nolasco Copyright (c) 2022 Marita Nimiah P. Nolasco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1812 1820 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.21 Collective Efficacy and Co-Teaching Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/621 <p>Co-teaching is becoming prevalent in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the general education classroom. Co-teachers face more challenges in collaboration, relationships, and defining roles. Collective teacher efficacy is the shared belief that a team of co-teachers can make a positive difference in student achievement and school culture. This quantitative study aims to assess the teachers' self-efficacy and the collective efficacy of the co-teaching team to develop cohesive and working relationships to benefit students in inclusive middle classrooms in a suburban school district in the United States. Bandura’s (1977) social cognitive theory and efficacy as a set of proximal determining factors of teachers’ affect and actions theoretically framed the study. The research questions used focused on understanding the kinds of things that create challenges for teachers. Also, they considered the combination of the current ability, resources, and opportunities for teachers and the co-teaching team. The data from the instruments were collected, categorized, and tabulated for interpretation and analysis. The findings show correlated efficacy factors in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management. The results recommended for same planning time, collaboration, and understanding of shared roles of the co-teaching team.</p> Ruby F. Pizana Copyright (c) 2022 Ruby F. Pizana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 3 9 1812 1825 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.22 Research Culture of Public Schools in Tagbilaran City, Bohol https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/626 <p>DepEd strives to promote and strengthen the culture of research in basic education. Along with this goal, this study aimed to determine the research culture and to recognize the extent of influence of the factors on research culture of public schools in Tagbilaran City, Bohol. It employed a quantitative descriptive research design with a survey questionnaire as the main instrument to gather the data needed in the study. Two instruments were utilized and modified in this study adapted from The Factors Influencing the Research Culture by Iqbal and colleagues and the Research Culture and Productivity of the Faculty of Accredited Private Higher Education Institutions by Tagaro. These were administered to 254 public school teachers as respondents from 25 public schools in DepEd Tagbilaran City Schools Division.</p> <p>Findings revealed a moderate influence on the extent of influence of the factors on research culture of Tagbilaran City public schools. Among the factors, Environmental Factor had a greater influence whereas Personal Factor had a lesser influence on the research culture. There was no significant relationship between the teachers’ selected profile and the extent of influence on research culture however sex, designation, and highest educational attainment affect the research productivity level. Moreover, data showed that there was no correlation between the extent of influence of the factors on research culture and research productivity level of the teachers.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Jhema Faith S. Mangana Copyright (c) 2022 Jhema Faith S. Mangana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 3 9 1826 1847 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.23 Student Strategies in Overcoming Learning Difficulties during The Covid-19 Pandemic https://ijmaberjournal.org/index.php/ijmaber/article/view/533 <p>Along with Indonesia, the COVID-19 outbreak has expanded across the globe. All facets of community life are affected by this disruption, including the educational system, which shifts from face-to-face instruction to online distance learning. To break the link of the COVID-19 outbreak's spread, the West Sumatra PGRI STKIP campus has made changes to the educational system. Without having to travel to a campus, students can learn online from the comfort of their own homes. However, this causes students to have issues with internet networks, quota availability, and understanding in the classroom. The goal of this study was to describe the methods used by students to deal with challenges presented by online learning in the COVID-19 program. The idea put forth between COVID-19 outbreaks. Constructivism theory was the one that was employed. Additionally, this study takes a qualitative descriptive technique to offer information about students' online learning strategies. Twenty students and five professors served as the study's informants. using Matthew Milles and Huberman's interactive model to analyze the data after gathering it through interviews and documentation. The study's findings show that students always provide a quota before classes begin, opt for a place where they can easily access the internet, question friends about concepts they don't understand, read articles and tutorials on YouTube, and always have memory available.</p> Yanti Sri Wahyuni Sri Rahayu Desi Fitrianeti Harisnawati Harisnawati Ripho Delzy Perkasa Copyright (c) 2022 Yanti Sri Wahyuni, Sri Rahayu, Desi Fitrianeti, Harisnawati Harisnawati, Ripho Delzy Perkasa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 3 9 1848 1858 10.11594/ijmaber.03.09.24