Main Article Content


A profound relationship exists between literature and peace that transcends centuries and cultures. In the southern Philippines, the Meranaw people consider peace to be more than a mere notion; it is an intrinsic aspect of their cultural and traditional way of life. Furthermore, by applying critical discourse analysis to the symbols and images in the Volume 1 of the Meranaw epic Darangen, this literary research elucidates the significance of peace. This is further supported by Aristotle's Theory of Poetry, Stuart Hall's Cultural Studies, Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory, and Karl Marx's Marxism. Moreover, it is found that fear, marriage, dialogue, status, royalty, tolerance, power, nobility and proletariat, cleanliness, communication, discontinuity, death, politeness, sacrifice, pride, royalty, divinity, harmony, support, safety, divine protection, and courage are the meanings of the symbols and images in relation to peace. Each symbol and image in the epic illustrate how the Meranaw people define peace. Peace is represented in marriage, gatherings in the torogan, the colors of the malong, flags, jewelry and gold, gifts, and divine like the spirits, magic chair, and shield in the epic. Further, the epic portrays that peace for the Meranaw people can only be achieved by valuing their honor, dignity, self-esteem, and reputation. Hence, this study revealed the symbols and images in the epic that reflect the concepts of peace in the Meranaw community.

Article Details

How to Cite
Casan, H. B. (2024). Symbols and Images of Peace in the Meranaw Epic Darangen. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 5(1), 63-74.


Abrera, M. B. L., & Torres, W. M. (2016). [Re-view of Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao (Expanded ed.)]. Philippine Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints, 64(2), 329–332.
Adolf, A. (2010). What Does Peace Literature Do? An Introduction to the Genre and its Criticism. Peace Research, 42(1/2), 9–21.
Armstrong, A. (1941). Aristotle’s Theory of Poetry. Greece & Rome, 10(30), 120–125.
Balsamo, A. (1991). Feminism and Cultural Studies. The Journal of the Midwest Mod-ern Language Association, 24(1), 50–73.
Belkhir, J. A. (2001). Marxism Without Apolo-gies: Integrating Race, Gender, Class; A Working Class Approach. Race, Gender & Class, 8(2), 142–171.
Bentley, G. C. (1984). Hermeneutics and World Construction in Maranao Disputing. American Ethnologist, 11(4), 642–655.
Bressler, C.E. (2011). "Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (5th Ed.)." Pearson Education Inc. 181-195.
Cox, O. C. (1950). Max Weber on Social Strati-fication: A Critique. American Sociologi-cal Review, 15(2), 223–227.
Douglas, J., & De Lang, N. E. (2020). After Marawi: Lessons, Root Causes, The Fu-ture. In I. Kfir & J. Coyne (Eds.), Counter-terrorism Yearbook 2020 (pp. 53–60). Australian Strategic Policy Institute.
Elbert, S. H. (1962). SYMBOLISM IN HAWAI-IAN POETRY. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 18(4), 389–400.
Embler, W. (1956). Symbols in Literature and Art. College Art Journal, 16(1), 47–58.
Ford, A. (2015). The Purpose of Aristotle’s Po-etics. Classical Philology, 110(1), 1–21.
Galtung, J. and Webel, C. (2007). “Handbook of Peace and Conflict Studies”. Routledge. 355-366.
Gimenez, M. E. (2001). Marxism, and Class, Gender, and Race: Rethinking the Trilogy. Race, Gender & Class, 8(2), 23–33.
Fraenkel, Jack R., et al. (2012) "How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education." McGraw Hill, 8th ed. 424-477.
Hall, S. (1990). The Emergence of Cultural Studies and the Crisis of the Humanities. October, 53, 11–23.
Heath, M. (1991). The Universality of Poetry in Aristotle’s Poetics. The Classical Quarter-ly, 41(2), 389–402.
Henry, P., & Middleton-Kaplan, R. (2010). Us-ing Literature to Teach Peace. Peace Re-search, 42(1/2), 142–166.
Hoffman, F. J. (1950). Psychoanalysis and Lit-erary Criticism. American Quarterly, 2(2), 144–154.
Hornstein, L. H. (1942). Analysis of Imagery: A Critique of Literary Method. PMLA, 57(3), 638–653.
Machin, D. (n.d.). "How To Do Critical Dis-course Analysis: A Multimodal Introduc-tion." SAGE Publications Ltd. 4-5.
Milligan, J. A. (2000). Rethinking the Ideal of the Educated Person: An Alternative from the Maranao-Filipino Oral Epic Darangen. Journal of Thought, 35(3), 67–79.
Murphy, W. P. (1978). Oral Literature. Annual Review of Anthropology, 7, 113–136.
Phillips, C., & Hall, S. (1997). Stuart Hall. BOMB, 58, 38–42.
Redekop, P. (2014). Inner Peace and Conflict Transformation. Peace Research, 46(2), 31–49.
Rees, B. R. (1981). Aristotle’s Approach to Po-etry. Greece & Rome, 28(1), 23–39.
Saber, Mamitua. “Some Observations on Meranaw Social and Cultural Transition.” Philippine Sociological Review, vol. 11, no. 1/2, 1963, pp. 51–56. JSTOR,
Saber, M. (1963). Some Observations on Ma-ranao Social and Cultural Transition. Phil-ippine Sociological Review, 11(1/2), 51–56.
Saber, M., Tamano, M. M., & Warriner, C. K. (1960). The Maratabat Of The Ma-ranaw. Philippine Sociological Re-view, 8(1/2), 10–15.
Simons, J. O. (1962). Teaching Symbolism in Poetry. College English, 23(4), 301–302.
Simpson, P. (1988). Aristotle on Poetry and Imitation. Hermes, 116(3), 279–291.
Smeets, R. (2021). CONFLICT. In Character Constellations: Representations of Social Groups in Present-Day Dutch Literary
Fiction (pp. 151–190). Leuven University Press.
Sutton, W. (1957). The Literary Image and the Reader: A Consideration of the Theory of Spatial Form. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 16(1), 112–123.
Tarō, Miura. Volume Information. (1986). Asian Folklore Studies, 45(2).
THE LITERATURE OF PEACE. (1851). Advo-cate of Peace (1847-1884), 9(1/2), 5–6.
Varshney, R. L. (1979). Tagore’s Imagery. Indi-an Literature, 22(3), 86–96.