Main Article Content


This study aimed to describe authoritative Filipino Generation Z mothers' mothering practices, including their concept of authority, parent-child communication, and reward-punishment practices. Eighty (80) Gen Z mothers, ages 18 to 24, with at least one child, completed a self-administered questionnaire using purposive and snowball sampling. The findings indicated that mothers have highly authoritative parenting styles and have very healthy overall well-being. The mother's completed education level showed weak inverse correlations with parent-child communication (r = -0.432, p = 0.000) and concept of authority (r = -0.283, p = 0.011). The mother's monthly income had a weak inverse relationship with her concept of authority (r = -0.269, p = 0.016). Furthermore, the number of household members had weak inverse correlation with parent-child communication (r = -0.227, p = 0.042) and positive correlations with reward and punishment practices (r = 0.437, p = 0.000). Results imply that mothers with a lower level of education value more authority and communication with their children. The findings show weak negative correlations between the mother's concept of authority and social well-being (r = -0.289, p = 0.009), implying that less concern for authority meant better social health. Furthermore, open lines of communication between mother and child have positive effects on their psychological health (r = 0.380, p = 0.001). Rewarding has shown to improve their psychological health (r = 0.257, p = 0.021) and overall well-being (r = 0.232, p = 0.038). The results could promote strategies that make Gen Z mothers use effective mothering practices in child-rearing.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bermal, M. L. N., Gaerlan, P. M. S., Suarez, J. E. E., Alberto, R. A. L., & Arcinas, M. M. (2022). Mothering Practices of Filipino Generation Z: Correlations with Personal Characteristics and State of Well-being. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 3(6), 1100-1108.


Bahrami A (2017) The Effect of Happiness on Various Aspects of Parenting and Positive Parenting. Psy-chology and Behavioral Science International Journal. 4.
Baumrind D (1971) Current patterns of parental authori-ty. Developmental Psychology. 4:1–103.
Bireda AD, Pillay J (2017) Perceived parent-child com-munication and well-being among Ethiopian ado-lescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 23:109-117.
Cherry K (2021) Positive Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning. Verywell Mind.
Chiva-Bartoll O, Moliner ML, Salvador-GarcÃa C (2020) Can service-learning promote social well-being in primary education students? A mixed-method ap-proach. Children and Youth Services Review. 111.
De la Cruz MT, Protacio E, Balanon F, Yacat J, Francisco C (2001) Trust and power: Child abuse in the eyes of the child and the parent. Quezon City, Philippines: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies Program on Psychosocial Trauma and Human Rights.
Gaidhani S, Arora L, Sharma BK (2019) UNDERSTAND-ING THE ATTITUDE OF GENERATION Z TOWARDS WORKPLACE. International Journal of Manage-ment, Technology and Engineering. 9: 2804–2812.
Gozu H, Newman J, Colvin K (2020) Maternal and Pater-nal Authority Styles and Developmental Out-comes: An Investigation of University Students in Turkey and the United States. Educational Process International Journal. 9:153–168.
Hall JA, Dornan MC (1990) Patient sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of satisfaction with medical care: a meta-analysis. Social science & medicine (1982). 30:811–818.
Headey B (2012) Parents Transmit Happiness along with Associated Values and Behaviors to Their Chil-dren: A Lifelong Happiness Divided? SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research; DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
Huppert FA (2009) Psychological Well-being: Evidence Regarding its Causes and Consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. 2:137–164.
JASP Team (2022). JASP (Version 0.16.1) [Computer software].
Jocson RM, Alampay LP, Lansford JE (2012) Predicting Filipino mothers’ and fathers’ reported use of cor-poral punishment from education, authoritarian attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punish-ment. International Journal of Behavioral Devel-opment. 36:137–145.
Kuipers Y, van Beeck E, Cijsouw A, van Gils Y (2021) The impact of motherhood on the course of women's psychological wellbeing Author links open overlay panel. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports. 6.
Kuppens S, Ceulemans E (2018) Parenting Styles: A Closer Look at a Well-Known Concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 28:168–181.
Leijten P, Gardner F, Melendez-Torres GJ, Knerr W, Overbeek G (2018) Parenting behaviors that shape child compliance: A multilevel meta-analysis. PLoS ONE . 13.
Levin J, Fox J (2014) Elementary statistics in social re-search: Essentials. 3rd Edition. Singapore: Pearson Education South Asia.
Robinson C, Mandleco B, Olsen SF, Hart CH (1995) Au-thoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parent-ing practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports. 77:819–830.
Ruggeri K, Garcia-Garzon E, Maguire Á, Matz S, Hup-pert F A (2020) Well-being is more than happi-ness and life satisfaction: a multidimensional analysis of 21 countries. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 18.
Runcan P, Constantineanu C, Ielics B, Popa D (2012) The Role of Communication in the Parent-Child Inter-action. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 46:904–908.
Starrels ME (1994) Gender differences in parent-child relations. Journal of Family Issues. 15:148–165.
Thomas PA, Liu H, Umberson D (2017) Family Relation-ships and Well-Being. Innovation in Aging. 1.
Tov W (2018) Well-being concepts and components. In: Diener E, Oishi S, Tay L, eds. Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.
Van Holland De Graaf J, Hoogenboom M, De Roos S, Bucx F (2018) Socio-demographic Correlates of Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Behaviors. Journal of child and family studies. 27:2315–2327.
Wiedmer T (2015) Generation Do Differ: Best Practices in Leading Traditionalists, Boomers and Genera-tions X, Y and Z. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators. 82:51-58.